How to Maintain Your Water Heater for Efficiency

Welcome to the ultimate guide on maintaining your water heater for optimal efficiency. Ensuring the longevity and proper function of this crucial appliance is vital, as it affects both your utility bills and daily comfort. In this guide, we will cover various types of water heaters, their working mechanisms, and essential maintenance practices to keep them running smoothly.

Whether you have a traditional tank unit, or a tankless system, or are exploring eco-friendly options like solar or heat pump water heaters, this guide is tailored for you. Our goal is to equip you with the knowledge and tools to confidently maintain your water heater, ensuring its efficiency and prolonging its lifespan.

Get ready to dive into the world of water heaters, learn essential maintenance tips, and discover how to keep your unit in top condition. Let’s get started on the path to an efficient and reliable hot water supply in your home!

Regular Maintenance Tasks

Maintaining your water heater is a crucial part of ensuring its longevity and efficiency. Regular maintenance not only extends the life of your unit but also helps in saving energy, which results in lower utility bills. In this section, we will cover the essential maintenance tasks that you need to perform regularly to keep your water heater in optimal condition.

Draining and Flushing the Tank

One of the most important maintenance tasks for a traditional tank water heater is draining and flushing the tank. Over time, sediment builds up at the bottom of the tank, which can lead to a variety of problems including reduced efficiency, corrosion, and in severe cases, tank failure.

Step-by-Step Guide:

  1. Turn Off the Energy Supply: For electric heaters, turn off the power at the circuit breaker. For gas heaters, set the thermostat to the “pilot” setting.
  2. Connect a Hose to the Drain Valve: Attach a garden hose to the drain valve located at the bottom of the tank.
  3. Turn Off the Cold Water Supply: This will stop more water from entering the tank.
  4. Open a Hot Water Tap: Choose a tap near the water heater and turn it on to prevent a vacuum from forming in the pipes.
  5. Open the Drain Valve: Allow the water in the tank to drain out. This could take anywhere from a few minutes to an hour, depending on the size of your tank and the amount of sediment.
  6. Flush the Tank: After the tank is empty, turn the cold water supply back on with the drain valve still open. This will help flush out any remaining sediment. Do this until the water running out of the hose is clear.
  7. Refill the Tank: Close the drain valve, disconnect the hose, and turn the cold water supply back on. Wait for the tank to fill up, which you’ll know when water starts flowing from the tap you left open.
  8. Turn the Energy Supply Back On Once the tank is full, turn the power back on for electric heaters or set the gas heater back to its normal setting.


Draining and flushing the tank regularly, at least once a year, helps to prevent sediment buildup, which enhances the efficiency and extends the lifespan of the unit.

Checking the Pressure Relief Valve

The pressure relief valve is a critical safety feature of your water heater. It is designed to release pressure if it gets too high, preventing the tank from exploding.

Steps to Check:

  1. Place a Bucket Under the Valve: Ensure that any hot water released does not damage your floor or the surrounding area.
  2. Lift the Valve’s Lever: You should hear a gurgling sound as some water is released into the bucket. Be careful as the water might be hot.
  3. Check for Leaks: Once you release the lever, keep an eye out for any leaks from the valve. If it continues to leak, it might need to be replaced.


Regularly checking the pressure relief valve ensures that it is working correctly, providing a crucial safety check and preventing potential damage.

Inspecting and Replacing the Anode Rod

The anode rod is made of magnesium or aluminum and protects the inside of your tank from corrosion. It does this by corroding itself instead of allowing the tank to corrode.

Steps to Inspect and Replace:

  1. Turn Off the Power and Water Supply: Ensure your safety before starting the procedure.
  2. Drain Some Water from the Tank: Drain a few gallons of water from the tank to reduce the pressure.
  3. Locate and Remove the Anode Rod: Use a socket wrench to unscrew and remove the anode rod.
  4. Inspect the Anode Rod: If it is less than ½ inch thick or coated with calcium, it’s time to replace it.
  5. Insert the New Anode Rod: Place the new anode rod into the tank and tighten it with the wrench.
  6. Refill the Tank and Restore Power: Turn the water and power back on once the replacement is complete.


Regularly checking and replacing the anode rod, usually, every 3-5 years, can significantly extend the lifespan of your water heater.

Photo of a technician wearing safety

Annual Professional Maintenance

Maintaining the efficiency and prolonging the lifespan of your water heater goes beyond the regular checks and tasks you can perform at home. Engaging a professional to conduct annual maintenance checks is a wise decision to ensure that your water heater is operating at its optimum level. In this section, we delve into the importance of annual professional maintenance, the tasks involved, and how it contribute to the overall efficiency and longevity of your water heater.

Water heaters are complex machines, and while many of the maintenance tasks can be performed by homeowners, there are aspects that require a trained eye and expert knowledge. Professionals have the experience and tools to conduct thorough inspections, identify issues that may not be apparent to the untrained eye, and perform necessary repairs or adjustments. This proactive approach helps prevent potential problems that could lead to inefficiency, higher energy bills, or even complete system failure.

Key Tasks in Annual Professional Maintenance

A professional maintenance check covers a range of tasks that contribute to the optimal performance of your water heater.

1. Comprehensive Inspection

A thorough inspection of the entire unit is performed to identify any signs of wear, corrosion, or damage. The technician will check for leaks, unusual noises, and any other issues that might need attention.

2. Temperature and Pressure Check

The professional will verify that the temperature and pressure settings are correct, ensuring efficiency and safety. They will also check the pressure relief valve to ensure it is functioning correctly.

3. Heating Element Inspection (For Electric Water Heaters)

In electric water heaters, the heating elements are crucial for efficient operation. The technician will check these elements for any signs of damage or wear and replace them if necessary.

4. Burner Assembly and Ignition System Check (For Gas Water Heaters)

For gas water heaters, the burner assembly and ignition system are vital components. The professional will clean and adjust these parts to ensure efficient combustion and heat transfer.

5. Anode Rod Inspection

While homeowners can check the anode rod, a professional will be able to make a more accurate assessment and replace the rod if necessary, ensuring prolonged tank protection.

6. Sediment Flush

Even with regular homeowner maintenance, sediment can still accumulate in the tank. A professional will perform a thorough flush of the system, ensuring all sediment is removed and efficiency is maintained.

7. Testing of All Safety Controls

The technician will test all safety controls, including the thermostat and pressure relief valve, to ensure they are functioning correctly and providing the necessary safety measures.

Benefits of Annual Professional Maintenance

Engaging in annual professional maintenance for your water heater provides a myriad of benefits, ensuring that:

  1. Efficiency is Optimized: Regular professional checks help maintain the efficiency of the unit, resulting in consistent performance and lower energy bills.
  2. Lifespan is Extended: By identifying and addressing issues early, the lifespan of the water heater is significantly extended, providing better value for your investment.
  3. Potential Issues are Prevented: Regular professional maintenance helps prevent potential issues, saving you from costly repairs or replacements in the future.
  4. Safety is Ensured: With a thorough safety check, you can have peace of mind knowing that your water heater is operating safely, with no potential hazards.

Photo of an insulation blanket

Energy-Efficiency Tips

Improving the energy efficiency of your water heater is not just about performing regular maintenance; it’s also about adopting practices that can significantly reduce energy consumption, leading to lower utility bills and a reduced carbon footprint. In this section, we will explore various energy-efficiency tips that can enhance the performance of your water heater and contribute to a greener planet.

1. Adjust the Thermostat

Many homeowners overlook the importance of setting the thermostat to an optimal temperature. The Department of Energy recommends setting your water heater thermostat to 120°F (49°C) for optimal performance. This temperature is hot enough for household use, prevents scalding, and helps to save energy.

How to Adjust:

Locate the thermostat on your water heater, and using a flathead screwdriver, adjust it to the desired temperature. For electric water heaters with two heating elements, make sure to adjust both thermostats to the same temperature.

2. Insulate the Water Heater Tank

Insulating your water heater tank can reduce standby heat losses by 25–45%, translating to about 4–9% savings in water heating costs. You can purchase pre-cut jackets or blankets for this purpose.

Installation Tips:

Ensure that the insulation does not block airflow or any of the heater’s controls. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for proper installation.

3. Insulate Hot Water Pipes

Insulating your hot water pipes reduces heat loss and can raise water temperature 2°F–4°F hotter than uninsulated pipes. This allows for a lower water temperature setting.

How to Insulate:

Use self-sealing foam pipe insulation on your hot water pipes. Make sure the insulation is of the correct size and securely placed.

4. Use Low-Flow Faucets and Showerheads

Low-flow faucets and showerheads can significantly reduce your hot water usage. Look for fixtures with a flow rate of less than 2.5 gallons per minute (GPM) for optimal water and energy savings.

5. Regularly Check for Leaks

A small drip from a faulty faucet can waste a significant amount of hot water. Regularly check your fixtures and pipes for leaks, and fix any issues promptly.

6. Opt for Energy-Efficient Appliances

If you have appliances that use a lot of hot water, like washing machines or dishwashers, consider upgrading to more energy-efficient models.

7. Be Mindful of Water Usage

Simple practices like taking shorter showers and only running the dishwasher when it’s full can contribute to reduced hot water usage.

8. Upgrading to a More Efficient Water Heater

If your water heater is old and inefficient, it might be time to consider upgrading to a more energy-efficient model. Tankless water heaters, heat pump water heaters, and solar water heaters are great options to explore.


In wrapping up this guide on maintaining your water heater for efficiency, it’s clear that proactive care is crucial for ensuring its optimal performance and longevity.

We’ve covered everything from understanding your specific water heater type and conducting regular maintenance tasks to the importance of annual professional check-ups and adopting energy-efficiency practices. These steps are key to preventing common issues, ensuring safety, and maximizing the efficiency of your water heater.

Joxan Williams
Home Maintenance Expert | | Website

I'm a licensed home maintenance contractor with over a decade of experience, dedicated to preserving your home's value. My expertise includes roofing, gutter installation and repair, fencing, pool maintenance, deck and patio construction, plumbing, appliance repair, lawn care, painting, garage doors, windows, sump pumps, and steam heating systems.